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This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! This page intentionally left blank German A Linguistic Introduction Standard German is spoken by approximately 95 million people worldwide.
This book provides an introduction to the linguistic structure of Best dating sites 2019 50 German that is rich in descriptive detail and grounded in modern linguistic theory.
It describes the main linguistic features: the sounds, structure, and formation of words, structure of sentences, and meaning of words and sentences.
It surveys the history of the language, the major dialects, and German in Duration and Switzerland, as well as sociolinguistic issues such as style, language and gender, finance language, and English influence on German. Prior knowledge of German is not required, as glosses and translations of the German examples are provided.
Each chapter includes exercises designed to subscribe to dating tip for christian singles pdf the reader practical experience in analyzing the language. The dating trailer trash barbie pregnant with twins is an essential learning tool for undergraduate and graduate students in German and linguistics.
How recent publications include Using German Vocabulary Cambridge, Fagan This publication is dating german females should modify their behaviors of bipolar copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the germany dating expatica nln study book of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published in print format ISBN eBook EBL ISBN hardback ISBN paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
Contents List of figures List of tables Acknowledgments Abbreviations page ix x xii xiii Introduction 1 1 Meaning speakers and geography 2 Objectives 3 Organization 1 1 2 1 Phonetics and phonology 1. Marc Pierce and Kirsten Kumpf provided valuable comments on the entire manuscript, for which I am very grateful. Several individuals helped with the figures in this book. I would like to thank Ingo Titze for permission to use modified versions of images from Principles of Voice Production, Julie Ostrem for her help in making these images available, and James Pusack for putting me in touch with Julie.
Special thanks to Erin Chrissobolis, who helped modify and create the images used in the figures. Greek Gmc. Germanic Goth. NHG nom. Introduction 1 German: speakers and geography Standard German is spoken by approximately 95 million speakers worldwide Gordon Standard German is the form that is typically used in school in German-speaking countries and the variety that is taught to non-native speakers studying German whatsapp dating groups in uganda a foreign language.
Dating service in baltimore md weather non-standard varieties of German will also be treated here German dialects, Foreign Worker German, etc.
The chapters on the sounds of German, the structure of German words, the regularities of word order, and so on all deal with the standard language. It includes a history of the language, a description of the major German dialects, and a discussion of sociolinguistic issues in addition to an analysis of the basic structural components of the language, namely, phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
It is intended for a broad readership. It is written in such a way as to dating club near mexican market accessible to nyc dating places in guwahati to shillong railway reservation students in German and linguistics, teachers of German, and linguists with a variety of interests.
A glossary of technical terms is also provided. This book differs in its scope, depth, and focus from other linguistic introductions to German that are currently available in English. Where other texts introduce the reader to linguistics with German as the object of investigation, this book focuses on the linguistic features of the language and explains linguistic concepts only briefly.
Badoo dating erfaringer translate chinese to english dictionary is placed on linguistic detail and the elucidation of insights into the language afforded by current linguistic research.
The general theoretical framework employed here is that of generative linguistics, the view that a formal and explicit set of rules a generative grammar underlies the knowledge that native speakers have of their language. The components of this grammar, which are all interrelated, include phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
In general, a more traditional approach to theoretical issues is taken instead of one that represents the most recent directions in the field. The expectation is that an approach that has the advantage of time and exposure will be accessible to a wide audience. Chapter 1 treats the phonetics and phonology of German, including phonological processes, phonotactic constraints, stress, and intonation.
Chapter 2, which presents the morphology of German, deals with inflection as well as the word-formation processes of derivation, compounding, and reduction. The discussion of the syntax of German in chapter 3 includes a description of the phrase structure of the language, from noun phrases to sentential phrases, and highlights the salient characteristics of German word order.
Chapter 4, which deals briefly with lexical semantics, focuses on issues of sentence-level semantics: tense and aspect, modality, and voice. The final three chapters of the book treat variation in the language, from diachronic and regional to social. Chapter 5 presents a history of German, beginning with a description of its Indo-European and Germanic ancestors and then presenting the important phonological, morphological, and syntactic characteristics of three of the major periods of the language.
Chapter 6 deals with regional variation. It addresses regional variation in the colloquial language and presents the characteristics of the major German dialects.
It also describes the varieties of German spoken in Switzerland and Austria and deals with the Introduction 3 linguistic differences in Germany between the East and the West.
Chapter 7 treats the sociolinguistic issues of style, forms of address, language and gender, youth language, the speech of foreigners, and the influence of English on German. Each chapter includes exercises that are intended to give the reader practical experience in analyzing the language and an opportunity to put to use the information presented in that chapter.
Solutions to the exercises can be found in the online answer key at www. There are three branches of phonetics: articulatory phonetics, which is concerned with how the human vocal tract produces speech sounds; acoustic phonetics, which investigates the physical properties of the sound waves produced when we speak; and auditory phonetics, which deals with the way that speech sounds are perceived by listeners.
This discussion of German phonetics focuses on the articulatory characteristics of the sounds of German. Speech sounds are produced when an airstream is put into motion. In German, as in most languages, speech sounds are produced by pushing air from the lungs out of the body through the vocal tract. A diagram of the vocal tract is provided in Figure 1.
To produce the different sounds of a language, the airstream is modified in various ways by manipulating the larynx voice boxthe velum soft palatethe tongue, and the lips. The larynx is made up of cartilages and muscle see Figure 1. The lower pair of folds can be spread apart or brought together by movement of the arytenoid cartilages. When the vocal cords are spread apart and the airstream passes freely through the space between them, the glottis, the sound produced is characterized as voiceless.
When the vocal cords are brought close together, but not completely closed, and the air passing through them causes them to vibrate, the sound that is produced is voiced. If the velum the soft area at the back of the roof of the mouth is raised against the back of the throat pharynxonly allowing the airstream to pass 4 Phonetics and phonology 5 Figure 1.
Modified from I. Figure 1. If the velum is lowered and air is allowed to pass through the nasal passages as well as through the mouth, the sound produced is nasal. The tongue is a highly flexible organ of speech and plays an important role in the modification of the airstream.
It can be lowered, raised, moved forward in the mouth, pulled back, and so on, so that it approaches or touches various surfaces in the mouth. Important parts of the upper surface of the vocal tract are the teeth, the alveolar ridge the ridge behind the upper front teeththe 6 German hard palate the roof of the mouththe velum, and the uvula the small piece of soft tissue that hangs down from the rear portion of the velum ; see Figure 1.
The lips, which like the tongue are very flexible, are the final articulators to modify the airstream as it leaves the body. Linguists use special phonetic alphabets to represent speech sounds in order to ensure a one-to-one correspondence between sound and symbol. The symbols of conventional spelling systems typically do not have this characteristic. The symbol e in the German spelling system, for example, can represent three different vowel sounds.
Five parameters are necessary to distinguish the different vowel sounds of German: tongue height, tongue position, lip position, length, and tenseness. There is a direct correlation between the tongue height of a given vowel and the degree to which the mouth is open during the articulation of that vowel. The parameter of tongue position refers to the location of the highest point of the tongue, from front to back in the mouth.
The difference in tongue position between front and back vowels is especially apparent if you pronounce a front vowel like i [i…] and then a back vowel like u Phonetics and phonology 7 Table 1. Lip position is thus a matter of lip rounding. We say that [o…] is a rounded vowel; [e…] is an unrounded vowel. The length of a vowel is the duration of that vowel relative to the duration of other vowels.
The parameter of tenseness is commonly described as involving the degree of muscular tension necessary to produce a vowel. Tense vowels are said to be produced with greater muscular tension than lax vowels. Although this has not been verified experimentally, there are phonetic differences between tense and lax vowels. In German, tense vowels are produced further from the midcentral position of the vowel area the natural, relaxed position for the tongue and are higher than their lax counterparts.
Tense vowels in German are long when they appear in a stressed syllable; they are short when unstressed. The raised vertical stroke, ", indicates that the following syllable bears primary stress. Stress will be indicated in transcriptions only when relevant to the discussion. See section 1. Table 1. Only the long variants of the tense vowels are included in this table. Examples of words that contain these vowels are provided in examples 1 through 3. It differs from [y…] only in lip position; [y…] is a high, front, tense, long, rounded vowel.
If you say [i…] and then round your lips, the resulting sound will be [y…]. If you consider all the front vowels in Table 1. A sound that stands out in Table 1. The low vowels, [a] and [a…], are not marked for tenseness, and both are considered central vowels. Although some studies treat the two different a sounds in German as qualitatively different e. It turns out that there is an interesting relationship between these two vowels.
When long a is umlauted in the formation of plurals, the derivation of er-nominals, etc. Both are mid central vowels that are lax, short, and unrounded. Vowels that do change in quality during a syllable because of movement of the tongue during their articulation are diphthongs.
German has the three diphthongs illustrated in 7.
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This content was uploaded by our dating nettsteder for enkle mennesker and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own personal dating ads in newspapers copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! This page intentionally left blank German A Linguistic Introduction Standard German is spoken by approximately 95 million people worldwide. This book provides an introduction to the linguistic structure of Standard German that is rich in descriptive detail and grounded in modern linguistic theory. It describes sydney dating scene main linguistic features: the sounds, structure, and formation of words, structure of sentences, and meaning of words and sentences. It surveys the history of the language, the major dialects, and German in Austria and Switzerland, as well as sociolinguistic issues such as style, language and gender, youth language, and English influence on German. Prior knowledge of German is not required, as glosses and translations of the German examples are provided. Each chapter includes exercises designed to give the reader practical experience in analyzing the language. The book is an essential learning tool for undergraduate and graduate students in German and linguistics. Her recent publications include Using German Vocabulary Cambridge, Fagan This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print format ISBN eBook EBL ISBN hardback ISBN paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
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