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Its 3,  inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburgand contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree dating sites for hpv, which flows into the River Havel a tributary of the River Elbe in the western borough of Speed dating black singles dallas. Due to its location in the European PlainBerlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate.
About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes. First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important dating for nerds milwaukee trade routes Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg —the Kingdom of Prussia —the German Empire —the Weimar Republic —and the Third Reich — Following German reunification inBerlin once again became the capital of all of Germany.
Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science. The metropolis is a popular speed dating liverpool professionals destination.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras, museums, and entertainment venues, and is host to many sporting events. With the world's libra man dating style large-scale movie studio complexBerlin is an increasingly popular location for international film productions.
Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saxon or Thuringian Saalethat once constituted, together with the River Elbe from their confluence onwardsthe eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was primarily inhabited by Germanic tribes like dating services ocean county nj Franks and the Saxonsthe regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes.
This is why most of the cities and villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic -derived names Germania Slavica. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow-itz-vitz-witz-itzsch and -inprefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. It is therefore a canting arm. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from approximately and remnants of a house foundation dated tofound in excavations in Berlin Mitte.
InFrederick Taylor swift dating newspapers in georgia became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburgwhich he ruled until The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated inin the "Berlin Indignation" "Berliner Unwille". After the royal palace was finished init gradually came into use.
Inthe electors asian dating sites los angeles the city officially became Lutheran. The Thirty Years' War between and devastated Berlin. One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population. Sincethe Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia.
This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow.
The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. Inneighbouring suburbs including WeddingMoabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin. In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. At the end of the First World War ina republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building.
Inthe Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar eraBerlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced dating chinese student killed tokyo joe movie heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries.
Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in InAdolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community fromone-third of all Jews in the country to about 80, as a result of emigration between and After Kristallnacht inthousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Starting in earlymany were shipped to death campssuch as Auschwitz.
The Allies dropped 67, tons of bombs on the city, destroying 6, acres of the built up area. Aroundcivilians were killed. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided.
All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, inwhen the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airliftconducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June to May West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation.
The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move the western powers did not recognize. East Berlin included most of the city's historic centre. The West German government established itself in Bonn. John F. Kennedy gave his " Ich bin ein Berliner " speech inunderlining the US support for the Western part of the city.
Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany.
Inwith the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall.
On 3 Octoberthe two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became a reunified city.
Walter Momperthe mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city in the interim. On 20 Junethe Bundestag German Parliament voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in Berlin's administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to Inthe German parliament voted to allow the reconstruction of the Berlin Palacewhich started in and will be finished in In a terrorist attack linked to ISILa truck was deliberately driven into the Christmas market next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Churchleaving 12 people dead and 56 others injured.
Berlin is in northeastern Germanyin an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topographypart of the vast Northern European Plain which stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia. The Berliner Urstromtal an ice age glacial valleybetween the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation.
The Spree follows this valley now. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havelwhich flows from north to south through western Berlin.
Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. Sincethe highest elevation in Berlin is found on the Arkenberge hills in Pankow, at metres feet. Through the dumping of construction debris, they surpassed Teufelsberg Due to its transitional climate zones, frosts are common in winter and there are larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates.
Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement. Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March. Whereas, the driest are OctoberNovemberOctober and Septemberall with 1 millimetre 0. Berlin's history has left the city with a polycentric organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings. The city's appearance today is predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history in the 20th century.
Berlin was devastated by bombing raidsfires and street battles during World War II, and many of the buildings that remained after the war were demolished in the post-war period in both West and East Berlin. Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new residential or business quarters and main roads. Many ornaments of pre-war buildings were destroyed following modernist dogmaswhile in both systems and in reunified Berlin, various important heritage monuments were also partly reconstructedincluding the Forum Fridericianum with e.
A number of new buildings are inspired by historical predecessors or the general classical style of Berlin, such as Hotel Adlon. Clusters of high-rise buildings emerge at disperse locations, e. Potsdamer PlatzCity Westand Alexanderplatzthe latter two representing the previous centers of West and East Berlin, respectively, and the former representing the new Berlin of the 21st century built upon the previous no-man's land of the Berlin Wall.
Berlin has three of the top 40 tallest buildings in Germany. Built init is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin. Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style. Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus City Hallwith its distinctive red-brick architecture.
In front of it is the Neptunbrunnena fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritonspersonifications of the four main Prussian rivers and Neptune on top of it. The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace. The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. It was remodelled by British architect Norman Foster in the s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city.
The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division.
The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century. Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss continues. Peter's Basilica in Rome. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family.
Hedwig's Cathedral is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral.
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Net dating assistantships for graduate a progressive exit from the crisis. Vote left in the European Elections. Alexis Tsipras has led his country through a difficult period, for which I personally want to express my gratitude and respect to him as President of the Party of the European Left. Together with the citizens of the EU and Mercosur, the progressive forces and the Mercosur parliamentarians, the trade unions and all the social badoo dating bahrain air show that have mobilized, we oppose this devastating agreement and we will fight to reject it in the parliamentary ratification. We need agreements that respect the human and social rights of people and nature, and not the umpteenth favor to multinationals. For us he will always be a pioneer of Cypriot politics and an icon of the European left. Our deepest sympathy lies with his companions, friends and especially with his family. This is why from the EL we demand and require the cessation of the Helms-Burton Act and the disappearance of the Bush Plan, so that the US government does not continue to violate international law by threatening the sovereignty of Cuba in all economic, social and political aspects. This support is extended to our comrade Lula da Silva, a fellow fighter for an egalitarian and democratic society. We are all Lula! The truth will prevail! We as Party of the European Left are condemning this act and ask the international community to oppose his extradition to the US.
In the census, its population was ,, with roughly a quarter of its population being students. Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. Founded in , Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest and one of Europe's most reputable universities. A former residence of the Electorate of the Palatinate , Heidelberg is a popular tourist destination due to its romantic cityscape, including Heidelberg Castle , the Philosophers' Walk , and the baroque style Old Town. Heidelberg is in the Rhine Rift Valley , on the left bank of the lower part of the Neckar in a steep valley in the Odenwald.
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