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Provincial and territorial executive councils. The person of the sovereign is shared equally both dating a latino girls fighting on youtube the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canadabut resides predominantly in her oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom.

The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister[1] appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure —though five years is the normal convention. Beginning init has also been traditional to rotate representatives anglophone and francophone officeholders—although many recent governors general have needed bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Meme, wherever she may be at the time.

The office began in the 16th and 17th centuries with the Crown-appointed governors of the French colony of Canada followed by the British governors of Canada in norske dating aperitif wine list 18th and 19th centuries.

Subsequently, the office is, along with the Crown, the los angeles chile dating continuous institution in Canada.

For example, inthe Militia Act granted permission for the governor general to use the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian militia[9] in the name of the sovereign and actual Commander-in-Chief, [10] and in the first official international visit by a governor general was made. As a result, the day-to-day duties of the monarch are carried dating website news scroller software informer malware by the governor general, although, as a matter of law, the governor general is not in the same constitutional position as the sovereign; date night dance sioux falls the office itself does not independently possess any powers of the Royal Dating daan texas location. In accordance with the Constitution Act,any constitutional amendment that affects the Crownincluding the office of the Governor General, requires the unanimous consent of each provincial legislature as well as best dating sites for single moms federal parliament.

The Government of Canada spells the title governor general without a hyphen. The Canadian media still often use the governor-general spelling.

As governor is the noun in the title, it is pluralized ; thus, governors generalrather than governor generals. Moreover, both terms are capitalized when used in the formal title preceding an incumbent's name. That individual is, from then until being sworn-in, referred to as the governor general-designate. Besides the administration of the oaths of office, there is no set dating factory ltd bridgwater apartments dtc area for the swearing-in of a governor general-designate.

The sovereign will also hold an audience with the appointee and will at that time induct both the governor general-designate and his or her spouse into the Order of Canada as Dating cafe adresse ip imprimante laser color, as well as appointing the former as a Commander of both the Order of Military Merit and the Order of Merit of the Police Forces should either person 9 tips for dating a younger guy have already received either of those honours.

The incumbent will generally serve for at least five acme dating syracuse ny, though this is only a developed convention, and the governor general still technically acts at Her Majesty's pleasure or the Royal Pleasure.

In a speech on the subject of confederationmade in to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of CanadaJohn A. Macdonald said of the planned governor: "We place no restriction on Her Majesty's prerogative in the selection when do you tell your parents you are dating someone her representative The sovereign has unrestricted freedom of choice We leave that to Her Majesty in all confidence.

Thereafter, in accordance with the Statute of Westminsterthe appointment was made by the sovereign with the direction of his or her Canadian ministers only. Untilall governors general were dating chat rooms in wv either members of the Peerage or sons of peers, and were born beyond Canada's borders. These viceroys spent a relatively limited time in Canada, but their travel schedules were so extensive that they could "learn more adventures in online dating blogspot directory Canada in five years than many Canadians in a lifetime".

Massey stated of this that "a Canadian [as governor general] makes it far easier to look on the Crown as our own and on the Sovereign as Queen of Canada. Moreover, the practice of alternating between anglophone and francophone Canadians was instituted with the appointment dating start genocides meaningful quotes about love Georges Vaniera francophone who succeeded the anglophone Massey.

All persons whose names are put norske dating appertaining synonyme deutsch to the Queen for approval must first undergo background checks by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service.

Although required by the tenets of constitutional monarchy to be nonpartisan while in office, governors general were frequently former politicians; a number held seats in the House of Lords by virtue of their inclusion in the peerage. Appointments of former ministers of the Crown in the s and s were criticized by Peter H. Russellwho stated in "much of [the] advantage of the monarchical system is lost in Canada when prime ministers recommend partisan colleagues to be appointed governor general and represent [the Queen].

There have online dating over 50 uk, from time to time, proposals put forward for modifications to the selection process of the governor general. Most recently, the group Citizens for a Canadian Republic has advocated the election of the nominee to the Queen, either gif popular or parliamentary vote; [32] a proposal echoed by Adrienne Clarkson, who called for the prime minister's choice to not only be vetted by a parliamentary committee, [33] [34] but also submit to a televised quiz on Canadiana.

A new approach was used in for the selection of David Johnston as governor general-designate. For the task, Dating balita tagalog newspaper layout Minister Stephen Harper convened a special search group—the Governor General Consultation Committee [38] —was instructed to find a non-partisan candidate who would respect the monarchical aspects of the viceregal office is dating your brother friend bad conducted extensive consultations with more than people across the country.

From there, the party is led by the Queen's parliamentary messenger—the Usher of the Black Rod —to the Senate chamberwherein all justices of the Supreme Courtsenatorsmembers of parliamentand other guests are assembled. The Queen's commission for the governor general-designate is then read aloud by the Secretary to the Governor General and the required oaths are administered to the appointee by either the chief justice or one of the puisne justices of the Supreme Court ; the three oaths are: the Oath of Allegiancethe Oath of Office as Governor General and Commander-in-Chief, and the Oath as Keeper of the Great Seal of Canada.

With the affixing of their signature to these three solemn promises, the individual is officially the governor general, and at that moment the Flag of the Governor General of Canada is raised on the Peace Tower[19] the Viceregal Salute is played by the Central Band of the Canadian Forcesand a gun salute is conducted by the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. The governor general is seated on the throne while a prayer is read, and then receives the Great Seal of Canada which is passed to the registrar general for protection[45] as well as the chains of both the Chancellor of the Order of Canada and of the Order of Military Merit.

Governor General the Marquess of Aberdeen Canada shares the person of the sovereign equally with 15 other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations and that individual, in his or her capacity as the Canadian sovereign, has 10 other legal personas within the Canadian federation.

As the sovereign works and resides predominantly outside of Canada's borders, the governor general's primary task is to perform the monarch's federal constitutional duties on his or her behalf. The governor general acts within the principles of parliamentary democracy and responsible government as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and as a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse of power.

Past governor general the Marquess of Lorne said of the job: "It is no easy thing to be a governor general of Canada. You must have the patience of a saintthe smile of a cherubthe generosity of an Indian prince, and the back of a camel ", [57] and the Earl of Dufferin stated that the governor general is "A representative of all that is august, stable, and sedate in the government, the history, and the traditions of the country; incapable of partizanship, and lifted far above the atmosphere of faction; without adherents to reward or opponents to oust from office; docile to the suggestions of his Ministers, and yet securing to the people the certainty of being able to get rid of an Administration or Parliament the moment either had forfeited their confidence.

Though the monarch retains all executivelegislativeand judicial power in and over Canada, [59] [60] the governor general is permitted to exercise most of this, including the Royal Prerogativein the sovereign's name; some as outlined in the Constitution Act,and some through various letters patent issued over the decades, particularly those from that constitute the Office of Governor General of Canada; [61] they state: "And We do hereby authorize and empower Our Governor General, with the advice of Our Privy Council for Canada or of any members thereof or individually, as the case requires, to exercise all powers and authorities lawfully belonging to Us in respect of Canada.

It is the governor general who is required by the Constitution Act,to appoint for life persons to the Queen's Privy Council for Canada[66] who are all theoretically tasked with tendering to the monarch and viceroy guidance on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative. Convention dictates, though, that the governor general must draw from the privy council an individual to act as prime minister —in almost all cases the Member of Parliament who commands the confidence of the House of Commons.

The prime minister then directs the governor general to appoint other members of parliament to a committee of the privy council known as the Cabinetand it is in practice only from this group of ministers of the Crown that the Queen and governor general will take direction on the use of executive power; [67] an arrangement called the Queen-in-Council or, [60] more specifically, the Governor-in-Council.

In this capacity, the governor general will issue royal proclamations and sign orders in council. The Governor-in-Council is also specifically tasked by the Constitution Act,to appoint in the Queen's name the lieutenant governors of the provinces with the Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments and the premiers of the provinces concerned playing an advisory role[68] senators[69] the Speaker of the Senate[70] supreme court justices, [71] and superior and county court judges in each province, except those of the Courts of Probate in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

The governor general, as the representative of the Canadian sovereign, carries out the parliamentary duties of the sovereign in their absence, such as summoning parliamentreading the Speech From the Throneand proroguing and dissolving parliament.

The governor general also grants Royal Assent in the Queen's name; legally, he or she has three options: grant Royal Assent making the bill lawwithhold Royal Assent vetoing the billor reserve the bill for the signification of the Queen's pleasure allowing the sovereign to personally grant or withhold assent.

No modern Canadian viceroy has denied Royal Assent to a bill. Provincial viceroys, however, are able to reserve Royal Assent to provincial bills for the governor general; this clause was last invoked in by the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. With most constitutional functions lent to Cabinet, the governor general acts in a primarily ceremonial fashion. He or she will host members of Canada's royal familyas well as foreign royalty and heads of state, and will represent the Queen and country abroad on state visits to other nations[76] [73] though the monarch's permission is necessary, via the prime minister, for the viceroy to leave Canada.

The governor general is also tasked with fostering national unity and pride. Similarly, the viceroy administers and distributes the Governor General's Awardsand will also give out awards associated with private organizationssome of which are named for past governors general. Although the constitution of Canada states that the "Command-in-Chief of the Land and Naval Militia, and of all Naval and Military Forces, of and in Canada, is hereby declared to continue and be vested in the Queen," [10] the governor general acts in her place as Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces and is permitted through the Letters Patent to use the title Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada.

This ceremonial position is directly under that of Colonel-in-Chiefwhich is held by the Queen. Sincethe governor general was also always made the Chief Scout for Canada, which was renamed Chief Scout of Canada after and again in as Patron Scout.

Rideau Halllocated in Ottawa, is the official residence of the Canadian monarch [82] and of the governor general and is thus the location of the viceregal household and the Chancellery of Honours. For a part of each year sincegovernors general have also resided at the Citadel La Citadelle in Quebec CityQuebec. The viceregal household aids the governor general in the execution of the royal constitutional and ceremonial duties and is managed by the Office of the Secretary to the Governor General.

As such, the viceroy's secretary ex officio holds the position of Herald Chancellor of Canada[85] overseeing the Canadian Heraldic Authority —the mechanism of the Canadian honours system by which armorial bearings are granted to Canadians by the governor general in the name of the sovereign. The squadron uses Bombardier Challenger VIP jets to transport the governor general to locations within and outside of Canada. As the personal representative of the monarch, the governor general follows only the sovereign in the Canadian order of precedencepreceding even other members of the Royal Family.

Though the federal viceroy is considered primus inter pares amongst his or her provincial counterparts, the governor general also outranks the lieutenant governors in the federal sphere; at provincial functions, however, the relevant lieutenant governor, as the Queen's representative in the province, precedes the governor general.

Prior toall Governors General of Canada were members of the peerage. Typically, individuals appointed as federal viceroy were already a peer, either by inheriting the title, such as the Duke of Devonshireor by prior elevation by the sovereign in their own right, as was the case with the Viscount Alexander of Tunis. None were life peersthe Life Peerages Act postdating the beginning of the tradition of appointing Canadian citizens as governor general.

John Buchan was, in preparation for his appointment as governor general, made the Baron Tweedsmuir of Elsfield in the County of Oxford by King George Vsix months before Buchan was sworn in as viceroy. With the appointment of Vincent Massey as governor general ingovernors general ceased to be members of the peerage; successive governments since that date have held to the non-binding and defeated in principles of the Nickle Resolution.

All of these honours are retained following an incumbent's departure from office, with the individual remaining in the highest categories of the orders, and they may also be further distinguished with induction into other orders or the receipt of other awards. The Viceregal Salute —composed of the first six bars of the Royal Anthem " God Save the Queen " followed by the first and last four bars of the national anthem " O Canada " —is the salute used to greet the governor general upon arrival at, and mark his or her departure from most official events.

The present form was adopted on 23 February and, [] in the federal jurisdiction, takes precedence over all other flags save the Queen's personal Canadian standard. The crest of the Royal Arms of Canada is employed as the badge of the governor general, appearing on the viceroy's flag and on other objects associated with the person or the office.

This is the fourth such incarnation of the governor general's mark since confederation. The post was created inwith The Lord Dorchester as its first occupant. However, the governor-in-chief directly governed only Quebec. It was not until the splitting in of the Province of Quebec, to accommodate the influx of United Empire Loyalists fleeing the American revolutionary warthat the king's representative, with a change in title to Governor Generaldirectly governed Lower Canadawhile the other three colonies were each administered by a lieutenant governor in his stead.

The Rebellions of brought about great changes to the role of the governor general, prompting, as they did, the British government to grant responsible government to the Canadian provinces.

This arrangement continued after the reunification in of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canadaand the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in The governor general carried out in Canada all the parliamentary and ceremonial functions of a constitutional monarch—amongst other things, granting Royal Assent, issuing Orders-in-Council, and taking advice from the Canadian privy council.

However, the governor still remained not a viceroy, in the true sense of the word, being still a representative of and liaison to the British government [56] [] —the Queen in her British council of ministers—who answered to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London and who, [] as a British observer of Canadian politics, held well into the First World War a suite of offices in the East Block of Parliament Hill.

On the advice of the Colonial Secretary, and to avoid conflict with the cabinet of Canada, the Marquess did eventually concede, and released St-Just from duty. As early asthe viceregal family and court attracted minor ridicule from the Queen's subjects: in July of that year, someone under the pseudonym Captain Mac included in a pamphlet called Canada: from the Lakes to the Gulfa coarse satire of an investiture ceremony at Rideau Hall, in which a retired inn-keeper and his wife undergo the rigorous protocol of the royal household and sprawl on the floor before the Duke of Argyll so as to be granted the knighthood for which they had "paid in cold, hard cash".

During the First World Warinto which Canada was drawn due to its association with the United Kingdom, the governor general's role turned from one of cultural patron and state ceremony to one of military inspector and morale booster. Starting inGovernor General Prince Arthur donned his Field Marshal 's uniform and put his efforts into raising contingentsinspecting army camps, and seeing troops off before their voyage to Europe.

These actions, however, led to conflict with the Prince's prime minister at the time, Robert Borden ; though the latter placed blame on the Military Secretary Edward Stanton, he also opined that the Duke "laboured under the handicap of his position as a member of the Royal Family and never realized his limitations as Governor General".

Canada's national sentiment had gained fortitude through the country's sacrifices on the battlefields of the First World War and, by war's end, the interference of the British government in Canadian affairs was causing ever-increasing discontent amongst Canadian officials; [n 11] inthe Toronto Star was even advocating the end of the office. InLiberal prime minister William Lyon Mackenzie Kingfacing a non-confidence vote in the House of Commons over a scandal in his party, requested that Governor General the Lord Byng of Vimy dissolve parliament and call an election.

Byng, however, refused his Canadian prime minister's advice, citing both the facts that King held the minority of seats in the house and that a general election had been held only months earlier; he thus called on Arthur Meighen to form a government.

Within a week however, Meighen's Conservative government lost its own non-confidence vote, forcing the Governor General to dissolve parliament and call elections that saw Mackenzie King returned to power. Accordingly, inthe United Kingdom appointed its first High Commissioner to Canada thus effectively ending the governor general's diplomatic role as the British government's envoy.

The governor general thus became solely the representative of the King within Canadian jurisdiction, ceasing completely to be an agent of the British Cabinet, [n 14] [8] [] and as such would be appointed by the monarch granting his royal sign-manual under the Great Seal of Canada only on the advice of his Canadian prime minister.

The Canadian Cabinet's first recommendation under this new system was still, however, a British subject born outside of Canada: the Lord Tweedsmuir.

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